в лёгких.. После травматики пуля осталась Хуйня какае-то?

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Хуйня какае-то?
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После травматики пуля осталась в лёгких..
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Обсуждение

  • 1
    Ёбнуто блядобляхокальный, еблогондонный и невмоготу гнилостный мангуст в лёгких.. После травматики пуля осталась - лифтёр!
  • Охлупень
    2
    Не хуйня, а вселенскод горе... Ведь Монро-Мамышев утонул...
  • 3
    * .* .* . *
    * . . * . . * . * .*
    . . .* ПОЗДРАВЛЯЮ . .* . . ..* * .
    .* . * . С НАСТУПАЮЩИМ .* * . ..*
    .* . * . * НОВЫМ 2014 ГОДОМ!!! . * .* .
    . * . . * . . * . * . . *
    . . * . * . . * . . * . *.
    *. . * . .* . . * * . .
    * .
  • Простой парень
    4
    Все литературные языки (языки книжников) суть
    конланги похлеще эсперанты. Истинны только
    реальные разговорные суржики свободных людей степи
    (казаков), гор (влахов) и моря (пиратов).
  • Арсешка Авакян воюет в Фейсбуке
    5
    Арсешка Авакян воюет в Фейсбуке
    Арсен Аваков
    КОГДА МИР, СОБИРАЯ ОСКОЛКИ..
    Вернулся из поездки в Мариуполь. Странное настроение. Нет, не потому что подразделения, что мы инспектировали, оказались не в тонусе или укрепления не адекватны.. И готовы и адекватны, и дух высок. И дроны, что смотрели от Юрия Касьянова летают с колоссальной пользой..

    Да вот только и вчера и позавчера и сегодня утром наши позиции обстреливались минометным и реактивным огнем со стороны русских боевиков.. Вчера на том укреплении, где мы сегодня были, погиб от осколка молодой нацгвардеец…

    Нелепость какая-то, нелепое прекращение огня, нелепый мир.. когда враг стреляет, продолжает убивать наших ребят, а мы говорим о «успешности» мирного процесса, каких то буферных 30-ти километровых зонах.. Какой буфер?!

    На улице, в Мариуполе, на улице Греческой подошла женщина. Смотрела прямо в глаза:
    -Арсен, что там за карту Москва нарисовала? Там Мариуполь в буферной зоне! Мы не хотим не в какую зону. Мы на своей земле – мы никуда не уйдем. Вы нас не отдавайте им..
    И все время смотрела в глаза.
    - Не будет тут никакого буфера. Это Украина и мы за вас в ответе. – Это все, что я мог сказать и это все, что я должен был сказать.

    И я не знаю, какой политической целесообразностью, какие аргументы, какой политический конформизм, может заставит меня поменять свое мнение.

    Я не за войну. Я, так же как и вы – за мир. Но, не любой ценой! Не ценой судеб людей, отправляемых под власть бандитов. Не ценой признания бандитских республик. .. Это трудный диалог внутри страны и тут нельзя прятаться – нельзя юлить – нужно говорить откровенно и открыто среди мирных людей, среди воинов, среди политиков.. Искать межу , цену мира.. Иначе это путь в разорванное взаимными подозрениями общество.. Фальшивое и пустое, как и то бутафорское прекращение огня, что мы наблюдаем в Мариуполе и Дебальцево..

    А на фото - осколки, в том числе после сегодняшнего утреннего обстрела. Прямо на расписанном украинским цветом противотанковым укреплении.
    Мира можно достичь по-разному. Я за мир, через сильную позицию, через крепкую армию, через императив национальных интересов, стоящих выше любой сиюминутной слабости.

    Я не верю Путину и его бандитам, не верю в договора с ним, не верю в их обязательства и бутафорское прекращение огня.

    А вот в то, что надо каждое мгновение передышки надо использовать, что бы усилится, что бы укрепится – полагаясь не на милость бандитов, а на свою силу – в эту парадигму я верю. В этой парадигме и работаю.

    И еще я верю, что мы точно победим в этой войне - делая то, что должны - для Укрины!
    Каждый на своем месте. В этом залог успеха!
  • За последний год правоохранительные органы Украины арестовали
    6
    За последний год правоохранительные органы Украины арестовали
  • Новости: Многотысячные митинги в Молдавии: активисты выступили з
    7
    Новости: Многотысячные митинги в Молдавии: активисты выступили за поддержку государственности и досрочных выборов - 16.04.2016 новости дня - сегодня | Dialog.ua4Голова ВР Гройсман засвітився з георгіївською стрічкою (ФОТО)3П.Порошенку запропонували встановити мінімальну зарплатню українцям на рівні 400 дол.4В Луганской области чтобы подать заявление на получение справки переселенца приходится ждать месяц-два - Горловская правда: новости Горловки, новости ДНР, объявле3«Не кнутом, так пряником»: В Киеве заговорили о возобновлении соцвыплат на Донбассе3Червоненко чуть не ударил Саакашвили в прямом эфире (ВИДЕО)3Новости: Дело Сергея Литвинова: Россия хочет уничтожить в тюрьме еще одного невиновного гражданина Украины - 16.04.2016 новости дня - сегодня | Dialog.ua2Видео дня: пассажирка BMW поразила киевлян жлобством2У Черкасах нарешті ремонтують жахливі ями навпроти відомого ринку (фотофакт) | Про все - Черкаські новини. Життя міста Черкаси та Черкаської області3Российские пограничники открыли огонь на российско-казахстанской границе2ПіКа - Володимир Ковальчук взяв участь в обласній спартакіаді2В Житомирской области введён режим ЧС в результате техногенной катастрофы | Криминальные новости. Происшествия2Унікальна розробка кремлівських ІТ-ішників !!! Відео1У Авакова объяснили жесткий инцидент со стрельбой полиции в Киеве (Видео)1Соседи Владимира Гройсмана в элитном жилом комплексе в Киеве поделились впечатлениями о новоизбранном премьере (ФОТО)2Семиотика и диагностика женских болезней Мандельштам | Киев | SLANET1У Ковалівському парку посадили «Коло пам’яті Героїв АТО»1Киселев заявил об уходе с "Интера" в прямом эфире (видео) | Metro News1Учень Баштанської ЗОШ №1 - призер ІV етапу Всеукраїнської олімпіади з трудового навчання | Баштанка НЕТ2В память о матери: принц Уильям с женой у Тадж-Махала повторили знаменитое фото Дианы (фото)1Кабмин Гройсмана: Правительство перебежчиков и приспособленцев2Хит дня: мальчик защитил бабушку от полиции стальной трубой. Видео1Міністр освіти анонсувала запровадження в Україні 12-річної середньої школи1Чемпіонат Закарпаття з футболу: ФК Ужгород розгромив вдома тячівців1В Одессе задержали большую партию незаконного алкоголя1В Любарской РГА новый глава1Главная / ФРАЗА1Ladies night1Объявления Северодонецка и региона / Детям / одежда / продам вещи и обувь Б/У на мальчика с рождения и до 7-ми лет(на любой сезон1Гройсман. Чуда не будет1Кресло-трансформер позволит инвалидам передвигаться стоя (ФОТО, ВИДЕО)1Наталья Мосейчук расплакалась во время прямого эфира - ДУСЯ.1В матче 22 тура чемпионата Украины "Динамо" обыграло "Говерлу"1Apple отримала майже тонну золота на переробці старих айфонів1Александр Левенбук: "К Крамарову все относились с симпатией, потому что он никогда не занимался...1Кисельов звільнився з "Інтера" - TeleProstir.com - ТелеПростір знає про телебачення все | Новини телекомпаній, новини супутникового ТБ, аналітика ТБ, онлайн ТБ, галерея ТБ, д1Національний екологічний центр: уряд веде нас до другої Фукусіми1FIBA дискваліфікувала збірну Росії з баскетболу1Британский фотограф и документалист Марк Невилл планирует создать фотокнигу о войне в Украине1З'явилися фото з відпочинку Порошенка в Іспанії1Российская журналистка: о войне на Донбассе, "героях"-ополченцах и скандальном уходе видеоблогера Шария1Украинцам придется платить за свет, даже если он выключен1Forbes: Глава Electrolux у Центральній і Східній Європі: Варіант із продажем заводу в Івано-Франківську ми не розглядаємо
    ^2
    1На Житомирщине огласили чрезвычайную ситуацию – UkrNews24.net1Як вивчити англійську і не померти від нудьги: поради черкащанам від фахівців1Первые подробности двойного убийства молодых женщин на Винничине » Реал, — свежие новости Украины

    всего: 83 новостей
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  • Селюк
    8
    Дело в том, что с повышением образованности усложняются мысли человека и, соотв., его речь. Человек, закончивший школу, уже не может полноценно изложить свои мысли на сурджике и вынужденно использует такие, например, "плюсовые" эпитеты, как "замечательный", "великолепный", "изумительный", "блистательный", "прекрасный", аналогов которым нет и близко в сурджике и все заменяется двумя уныло-говняными "гарный" и "чудовый".
  • kurmanji-basic
    9
    Chapter 1 - Numbers and Question Words

    1.1 The Numbers
    yek - one sanzde - sixteen
    didu, du - two hivde - seventeen
    sise, se - three hijde - eighteen
    car - four nozde - nineteen
    penc - five bist - twenty
    ses - six si, sih (dialectal variants) - thirty
    heft - seven cil - fourty
    hest - eight penci, pencih (dialectal variants) - fifty
    neh - nine sest - sixty
    deh - ten hefta - seventy
    yanzde - eleven hesta - eighty
    dwanzde - twelve not - ninety
    sezde - thirteen sed - one hundred
    carde - fourteen hezar - one thousand
    panzde - fifteen

    1.2 - Ordinal Numbers (i.e., first, second, third, etc.)
    Simply add -emin to the numbers:

    yekemin - first
    duyemin - second
    seyemin - third
    caremin - fourth
    heftemin - seventieh


    kiteba duyemin - the second book (du kiteb - two books)
    care pencemin - the fifth time (penc car - five times)

    1.3 - Question Words
    cend - how many (also some)
    ci - what
    cima - why
    ciqas - how much
    kengi - when
    ki - who
    kijan - which
    kudere - where


    1.4 - The Days and Months
    saniye - second daqe - minute saet - hour

    1


    roj - day mah / heyv - month
    Cile - January Sibat - February
    Gulan - May
    Elun - September
    Pusber - June
    Cotmeh - October
    Semi - Saturday Yeksemi - Sunday
    Carsemi - Weds Pencsemi - Thurs
    1.5 - Useful Words

    sal - year sedsala 21 - 21st century

    Adar - March Avrel - April
    Tirmeh - July Tebax - August
    Mijdar - November Bercile - December

    Dusemi - Monday Sesemi - Tuesday
    In - Friday

    cend caran - sometimes gelek caran - often, regularly ji bo - for


    biyani - foreigner bir - mind
    komkuji - genocide kocber - immigrant
    cek / sila - gun belge - document or proof
    pes u pas - front and back bindesti - oppression
    bername - programme or plan of action
    maf - rights (mafen jin - women's rights)
    azadi - freedom dewlet - state
    exlaq - ethics hukuq - law
    welat - country or nation sores - revolution
    serihildan - uprising or rebellion
    dad - justice dadgeh - court
    pesketin - evolution or development
    navend - center nenavendi - decentralised
    fiker / raman - idea or thought

    gerdun - cosmos
    rasti - truth
    rews - situation
    pispor - specialist

    pesniyar - suggestion or proposal
    mirovahi - humanity
    hikumet - government
    rizgar - liberation
    wekhevi - equality

    berxwedan - resistance
    biryar - decision

    bandor - effect
    pere - money

    agahdari - information

    biserexwe - independence
    niqas - discussion
    dogmatik - dogmatic
    cotkar - farmer
    civak - society
    herem - region
    tekili - relation
    tevger - movement (pol.)
    diken - shop
    girtigeh - prison
    helwest - attitude
    bawer - belief
    sereke - main
    serkeftin - victory
    erk - duty
    derdor - environment
    capemani - media
    tenderusti - health
    cihan / dunya - world
    nexwes - sick
    re - road / path / way

    nirx - value (like your values) ast - level


    rexne - criticism
    wene - picture
    karker - worker
    civaki - social
    heremi - regional
    giredan - connection
    xweseri - autonomy
    servan - fighter
    tirs - fear

    mijar - topic, subject
    saristani - civilisation
    xwendekar - student
    dijmin - enemy
    desthilat - authority
    nijadperesti - racism
    eris - attack
    desthilatdari - domination
    reng - color

    berjewendi / sud - advantage or benefit hazir - ready


    nimej - prayer
    gisti - general
    gel - the people
    ewlekari - security
    rexistin - organisation
    abori - economy
    perwerde - education
    ser - fight / battle
    agir - fire
    cih - place

    kola - slave
    taybet - special
    prensip - principle
    dirok - history
    kom - group
    artes - army / military
    cand - culture
    ceng - war
    ali - side, direction
    ciwan - young

    2



    bi aqil - intelligent birci - hungry jiyan - life
    disa - again giring - important his - consciousness, reason
    bi gisti - generally bi taybeti - especially spehi - beautiful
    temam - complete, OK tevlihev - mixed bijisk - doctor
    tist - thing xelas - finished dawi - end
    zelal - clear birindar - injured fermandar - commander
    balefir - plane binketin - defeat xewzayi - nature
    sedem - reason haraket - movement xiyal - idea, imagination
    dorpec - surrounded siyasi - politics/political sinor - border, limit, frontier
    cephe - frontline (war) mevzi - defensive position

    Chapter 2 - Simple Sentences, Case and Gender

    2.1 - Personal Pronouns (Direct Case)
    ez - I em - we
    tu - you (sing.) hun - you (pl.)
    ew - he/she/it (that) ew - they (those)
    (ev - this, these)


    2.2 - Verb: "to be" (present tense)
    ez im - I am em in - we are
    tu i - you are hun in - you (pl.) are
    ew e - he/she/it is ew in - they are


    "To be" following vowels:

    ez ... me - I am em ... ne - we are
    tu ... yi - you are hun ... ne - you are
    ew ... ye - he/she/it is ew ... ne - they/those are


    2.3 - Examples of Simple Sentences in Present Tense
    Ew sir e - That is milk.
    Ew sir e? - Is that milk? (note that only intonation distinguishes this sentence from the first.)
    Ev zilam in. - These are men.
    Ew mamoste ye. - That is a teacher, or, she/he is a teacher.
    Ev ki ye? - Who is this?
    Ew ki ye? - Who is that?
    Ev cay u sekir e. - This is tea and sugar.
    Ew nan u nivisk e. - That is bread and butter.
    Ew pirek in. - Those/they are women.
    Ev pirek e. - This is (the) woman.
    Ev nan e. - This is bread.
    Ew gost e. - That is meat.
    Ew xwendekar in. - Those are students.


    3



    Hun xwendekar in? - Are you students?
    Ew ci ye? - What is that? What is he?
    Ev masi ye? - This is fish.
    Tu ki yi? - Who are you?
    Ew ki ne? - Who are they?
    Em mamoste ne. - We are teachers.
    Ez Tarik im. - I am Tarik.
    Tu karker i? - Are you a labourer/worker?
    Ev xirab e. - This is bad.
    Ew bas e. - That is good.


    2.4 - Case
    In English we typically say:

    I see you.
    That is: Subject, Verb and Object.
    Kurdish is more like:

    I you see.
    The structure follows: Subject, Object, Verb.
    Also in Kurdish, the personal pronouns change depending on whether they are the subject or object.
    Here are some examples to demonstrate:

    Min tu diti. - I you saw (past).
    Ez te dibinim. - I see you (present).
    Ez e te bibinim. - I will see you (future)


    Ez cum. - I went.
    Ez dicim. - I am going.
    Ez e bicim. - I will go.


    These 2 variants for the subject and object are known as cases. Case in Kurmanji is not difficult, in that
    it only has two: the direct and the oblique case.

    2.5 - Direct Case
    The personal pronouns in 2.1. are all in the direct case.

    2.6 - Oblique Case
    The oblique case takes care of most other case functions such as direct object, indirect object, object of

    4



    a preposition, etc. The oblique case is a marked case, meaning that it is often evidenced by some ending
    or internal alteration of a word or both.

    2.7 - Oblique Case Personal Pronouns
    min - me, mine me - us, ours
    te - you (singular), yours we - you (plural), yours
    wi - him/it, his/its wan - them, theirs
    we - her/it, hers/its


    2.8 - Uses of the Oblique case
    A word is put in the oblique case:

    1) when it is the object of a preposition:

    ji min - from me liba me - next to us

    ji te - from you liba we - next to you (pl.)

    ji wi - from him linav wan - among them

    2) when it is the object of the verb (at least in nonpast tenses):

    Ez te dikujim - I kill (am killing) you. (I you kill)

    ez wi vedixwim - I drink (am drinking) it. (I it drink)

    3) when it is subjected to another word in a genitive relationship called "izafe". The word in focus is
    linked by a connecting vowel to the following word, to which it is subject (by which it is further
    defined and restricted). That following word, if it is a noun or pronoun will always be in the oblique
    case.

    deste min - my hand

    xwiska wi - his sister

    2.9 - The Demonstrative Pronouns in Oblique Case
    The demonstrative pronouns are divided into two basic categories as shown by the direct case forms
    "ev" (this/these) for things nearby and "ew" (that/those) for things farther away. In the direct case the
    demonstrative pronouns for both feminine and masculine nouns, whether they indicate a single thing or
    a number of things remain "ev", and "ew".

    In the oblique case distinctions are made between the masculine, feminine and plural. The masculine
    oblique case for "ev" (this) is "vi", and the feminine form is "ve". "Ew" (that) become "wi" and "we" in
    the masculine and feminine respectively. The plural forms "ev" (these) and "ew" (those) are "van" and
    "wan" respectively in the oblique case.

    ji vi mirovi - from this man (masc.)
    ji ve kitebe - from this book (fem.)


    5



    ji van kiteban - from these books (pl.)
    ji van mirovan - from those men (pl.)


    Notice the coordination (agreement) between the demonstrative pronouns and the case endings on the
    nouns:

    vi ... - i
    ve ... - e
    van ... - an


    Chapter 3 - Izafe and the Indefinite Article

    3.1 - Izafe
    In English we might say:

    My big black horse

    In Kurdish, the words are joined together by either a -e (masculine words) or -a (feminine words).

    cave ker. - donkey's eye (eye-of donkey).
    cave min. - my eye (eye-of me).
    cave sin. - the blue eye (eye-of blue).
    cave kurre min. - my son's eye (eye-of son of me).


    Kurdish nouns have are either masculine or feminine. As a rule, body parts are masculine, and abstract
    words or "verbs as nouns" are all feminine. The majority of words in Kurdish are feminine.

    3.2 - Masculine Izafe
    Add the suffix "-e" to the noun followed by the modifier. Note that this masculine izafe "e" looks just
    like the feminine oblique case ending "e"! Note also that for possession, one employs this construction:
    possessed noun, izafe suffix and oblique case pronoun.

    cave min - my eye
    mamostaye te - your teacher ("y" is a buffer between word ending in a vowel and izafe suffix)
    bave wi - his father
    kere me - our donkey
    kurre we - your boy, your (pl.) son

    3.3 - Feminine Izafe
    Add the suffix "-a" to the noun followed by the modifier.

    qelema min - my pen
    bevila te - your nose
    kiteba we - her book


    6



    kecika wan - their daughter
    renga ave - the colour of the water (ave is the oblique case for av, direct case is "renga av")


    3.4 - Plural Izafe
    In the plural no distinction is made between masculine and feminine. All plural nouns receive the suffix
    "-en" followed by the modifier.

    kiteben min - my books (kiteb f.)
    baven me - our fathers (bav m.)
    keciken we - your daughters (pl. f.)
    kurren te - your sons (pl. m.)


    3.5 - Izafe with adjectives
    Adjectives always follow what they describe, the noun receiving the appropriate izafe suffix.

    cave res - the black eye
    Kiteba Res - the Black Book (Holy Book of the Yezidis)
    Kiteba Muqaddes - the Holy Book (the Bible)
    kecika mezin - the big (old) daughter
    kurre bicuk - the small son
    caven sor - the red eyes (indicates great anger)
    nane germ - the warm bread
    nane teze - the fresh bread
    masiye mezin - the big fish ("-y-" is buffer for nouns ending in vowels)


    3.6 - Indefinite Article
    The indefinite article (comparable to English "a, an") is formed in Kurdish by adding the suffix "-ek"
    on the end of the noun it modifies. There is no such thing as a definite article (the) - all nouns which do
    not have the indefinite article are definite.

    kurr - son, the son >> kurr-ek - a son
    hek - egg, the egg >> hek-ek - an egg
    tilih - finger, the finger >> tilih-ek - a finger


    3.7 - Izafe and the Indefinite Article
    When a noun is modified by both the indefinite article and another modifier, the indefinite article is
    attached directly to the noun and then the appropriate secondary izafe suffix is attached as the
    connector to the modifier which follows.

    kurre min - my son >> kurreki min - a son of mine
    cave min - my eye >> caveki min - one of my eyes
    heka min - my egg >> hekeke min - one of my eggs


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    3.6 - Ezafe examples
    So now there are four different possibilities for the Ezafe in singular:

    Fem, no suffix -(y)a: mala me (our house) gola Wane (Lake Van)
    Fem, with suffix -e: seveke sor (a red apple) jineke bedew (a beautiful woman)
    Masc, no suffix -(y)e: ceme Ferate (the Euphrates river) deriye darin (the wooden door)
    Masc, suffix -i: mereki bilind (a tall man) kevireki belek (a colorful stone)


    masculine: deste mine rast - my right hand

    feminine: qelema mina drej - my long pen

    kiteben minen nu - my new book

    cend kiteben minen nu - some new books of mine.

    pirtuka xwiska hevale biraye min - my brother's friend's sister's book.

    hespe mine mezin u res - my big black horse.

    Alternatively, the ordinary izafe suffixes may be written as the serparate words. This form is more
    emphatic:

    Saredariya Gel a Derik - The people's municipality of Derik.

    Chapter 4 - Verbs

    4.1 - Verb Stems: the Infinitive and the Imperative
    Every Kurmanji verb has two seperate stems from which all its various forms (with a few rare
    exceptions) can be derived. Neither of the stems can be consistently predicted from the form of the
    other. Just as one must memorize the three principle parts of irregular (or strong) verbs in English or
    German, in Kurmanji one must memorize two principle parts of every verb.

    All verb forms can normally be derived either from the infinite, which contains the past stem, or from
    the imperative, which contains the present stem. This is why the dictionary lists both forms of the verb
    -- first the infinitive, then the imperative. The infinitive and imperative forms of the verb can be quite
    different.

    The infinitive always ends in "-n", and the imperative usually begins with "bi-" and ends in "-e".

    cun, bice! - to go, go!

    kirin, bike! - to do/make, do it! make it!

    4.2 - Verb Stem for the Present Tenses
    The present stem of a verb is derived by dropping the "bi-" prefix, if there is one, and the "-e" suffix off
    the imperative (second dictionary form) of the verb:

    ketin, bikeve - to fall: bikeve >> bi-kev-e >> kev. Thus, present tense stem of "ketin, bikeve" is
    "kev".

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    cun, bice - to go: bice >> bi-c-e >> c. Thus, present tense stem of "cun, bice" is simple "c".
    man, bimine - to stay, to remain: bimine >> bi-min-e >> min. Thus "min" is present tense stem.

    Note that some imperatives end in a vowel other than "-e". In such cases the vowel is part of the stem:

    sistin, biso - to wash: biso >> bi-so >> so.

    If an imperative begins with "b-" plus any vowel other than "i", it is likely that the vowel is the
    beginning of the present stem.

    axiftin, baxive - to speak >> b-axiv-e

    Note also that not every imperative includes the prefix "bi-", eg., "hildan, hilde", "to raise, lift". In most
    cases these are old compound verbs where the preverbal element (in this case "hil-") precludes the use
    of the "bi-" prefix.

    4.3 - Simple Present Tense
    The simple present indicative of all verbs (both transitive and intransitive) is formed by adding the
    prefix "di-" to the present stem and the appropriate personal ending similar to those for "to be" (see
    1.5). Note that having a present stem that ends in a vowel affects the personal endings differently than
    does a similar set of conditions with the verb "to be" (1.5).

    kirin, bike - to do
    ez di-k-im - I do, am doing em di-k-in - we do, are doing
    tu di-k-i - you do, are doing hun di-k-in - you (pl.) do, are doing
    ew di-k-e - he/she does, is doing ew di-k-in - they do, are doing

    Note that when the present stem ends in a vowel, the 3rd singular personal ending is lost.

    sistin, biso - to wash
    ez di-so-m - I wash, am washing em di-so-n - we wash, are washing
    tu di-so-yi - you wash, are washing hun di-so-n - you (pl.) wash, are washing
    ew di-so - he washes, is washing ew di-so-n - they wash, are washing

    jin, biji - to live
    ez di-ji-m - I live, am alive em di-ji-n - we live, are alive
    tu di-ji - you live, are alive hun di-ji-n - you (pl.) live, are alive
    ew di-ji - he lives, is alive ew di-ji-n they live, are alive

    Note: Present verb stem is "ji". Second person "i" suffix assimilated into the "i" verb ending in the
    second person singular and the third person "-e" does not appear either. That is why second and third
    persons singular look the same.

    In at least one verb, the present tense is based on an alternate imperative: cun, herre (bice).

    cun, herre - to go

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    ez di-c-im - I am going em di-c-in - we are going
    tu di-c-i - you are going hun di-c-in - you (pl.) are going
    ew di-c-e - he is going ew di-c-in - they are going

    Various dialects of Kurmanji differ as to which forms are based on the present stem "-c-" and which
    forms are based on the stem of the more usual imperative "herre".

    If the present stem begins with a vowel, the prefix will change from "di-" to simply "d-", a reflection of
    the weakness of the vowel "i".

    axiftin, baxive - to speak
    ez d-axiv-im - I speak, am speaking em d-axiv-in - we speak, are speaking
    tu d-axiv-i - you speak, are speaking hun d-axiv-in - you speak, are speaking
    ew d-axiv-e - he speaks, is speaking em d-axiv-in - they speak, are speaking

    "Hatin, werre" is an exception to the above rules. Its present tense is formed as follows:

    hatin, werre - to come
    ez tem - I come, am coming em ten - we come, are coming
    tu teyi - you come, are coming hun ten - you (pl.) come, are coming
    ew te - he comes, is coming ew ten - they come, are coming

    "anin, bine" is similarly exceptional:

    anin, bine - to bring
    ez tinim - I bring, am bringing em tinin - we bring, are bringing
    tu tini - you bring, are bringing hun tinin - you bring, are bringing
    ew tine - he brings, is bringing ew tinin - they bring, are bringing

    4.4 - Negation of Present Tense
    To negate the present tense simply drop the "di-" prefix and substitute with "na-".

    ez dikevim - I am falling >> ez nakevim - I am not falling
    ez disom - I am washing >> ez nasom - I am not washing


    The only two exceptions to this rule are the verb "zanin, bizane" (to know) and "karin, bikare" (to do).
    They take "ni-" instead of "na-".

    ez nizanim - I don't know.
    ez nikarim - I cannot.


    4.5 - Verb of Existence
    Though the English verb "to exist" is used relatively seldom, the Kurmanji equivalent, based on the
    vern "hebun, hebe" (to be) is quite commonly used for such expressions as "there is (one)", "there are
    (some)".

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    ew heye - he/she/it is, exists

    ew hene - they are, exist

    av heye? - Is there water?

    hek hene? - Are there eggs?

    This verb is also employed with a noun phrase to express possession; no Kurdish equivalent of the verb
    "to have" exists.

    Se birayen min hene. - I have three brothers. (Three brothers-of mine exist)

    Kurrike wi heye. - He has a small son. (Little boy-of his exists)

    Qelema te heye? - Do you have a pencil? (Pencil-of yours exists?)

    Although we can express ownership by saying "in the hand of ...".

    Hasakah di deste Assad de bu. - Hasakah was in Assad's hand.

    4.6 - The Verb "bun, bibe" - to be, to become
    Study these examples below and try to understand how they are formed based on the rules before.

    Ez ter bum. - I was rich.
    Ez ter dibim. - I am becoming rich.
    Ez ter im. - I am rich.
    Ew mezin bu. - He/She was big.
    Ew mezin e. - He/She is big.
    Tu faqir buyi. - You were poor.
    Tu faqir i. - You are poor.
    Tu faqir dibi. - You are becoming poor.


    4.7 - Compound Verbs with Preverbals
    Kurdish has a series of compound verbs, i.e., verbs which have a preverbal element attached to their
    stems. With a few exceptions, these stems are from common verbs. The different preverbals give these
    verb stems quite different meanings.

    Some of the regular preverbals are "ve-", "ra-", "der-", "da-", and "hil-". If the imperative form in the
    dictionary does not have a "bi-" prefix, the word is a compound verb.

    vebun, vebe - to be opened

    vexwarin, vexwe - to drink

    vekirin, veke - to open

    rabun, rabe - to stand up

    rawestan, raweste - to stand (up), to stop

    rakirin, rake - to lift up, to cancel

    11



    deranin, derine - to take out
    derketin, derkeve - to leave, to emerge
    dagirtin, dagre - to fill
    daketin, dakeve - to come down, descend


    The present indicative prefix "di-" is normally infixed between the preverbal and the verb stem.

    Ew ave vedixwin. - He is drinking the water.
    Ez ji vir derdikevim. - I am leaving from here.


    4.8 - Other Compound Verbs
    A great many Kurmanji verbs are compounds comprised of a basic verb preceded by a recognizable
    word such as an adjective or a noun. The verbs "kirin, bike" (to do) and "bun, bibe" (to be) are most
    often used in this way. Sometimes "dan, bide" (to give) is also used to form such a compound.

    kar (work) - kar kirin (to work)
    kem (few) - kem kirin (to become less, to reduce, to deplete)
    zede (extra) - zede bun (to be increased)
    hewl (effort) - hewl dan (to try / make effort to do something)


    Similarly there are some verbs that must have a similar origin though the first element is not currently
    used as an independent word.

    fer bun (learn) - fer kirin (to teach)
    ce bun (to come into being) - ce kirin (to create/prepare)


    Remember, all verbs formed with kirin are always transitive, and all verbs formed with bun are always
    intransitive.

    4.9 - List of Some Basic Verbs
    kenin, bikene - vi to laugh ketin, bikeve - vi to fall serketin, serkeve - vi to win
    binketin, binkeve - vi to lose man, bimine - vi to stay/remain sekinin, bisekine - vi to stand
    bawer kirin - vt to believe nimej kirin - vt to pray amade kirin - vt to prepare
    ava kirin - vt to setup tiji kirin - vt to fill pevcun kirin - vt to argue
    fer bun - vi to learn guh dan - to listen ceribandin, biceribine - vt to test
    cekirin - vt to make, fix, repair, prepare (a meal) cebun - vi to be made/created

    Chapter 5 - Past Tense of Verbs

    5.1 - Verb Stem for the Past Tenses
    The past stem of a verb is derived by simply dropping the "-in" off the infinitive form (1st dictionary
    form) of the verb. If the verb stem ends in a vowel then the infinitive will not display the ending "-in",
    it will simply display an "-n". This is due to the fact that the vowel "i" is the weakest of the Kurdish
    vowels and disappears whenever it comes in contact with another. In such cases the removal of the "-n"

    12



    from the infinitive results in the past stem. The verb stem is the same as the third person singular form
    of the verb in the preterite (simple past) tense. In other words, the third person singular form of this
    tense has no personal ending (null morpheme).

    sistin >> sist = he washed
    kirin >> kir = he did/he made
    cun >> cu = he went


    5.2 - Simple Past Tense of Intransitive Verbs
    Simple past tense of intransitive verbs (i.e., verbs which do not require a direct object) are formed by
    simply taking the past tense verb stem and adding the "to be" suffixes. The only exception is the 3rd
    person singular, "he, she, is" which, as noted above, is the same as the simple past stem with no suffix
    added.

    Transitive past tense verbs are also formed this way, but there is an added feature governing their
    behaviour which we will look at later.

    When we look in the dictionary, for intransitive verbs (verbs with a subject but no object), we might see
    an entry like:

    ketin, bikeve - vi to fall
    cun, bice - vi to go


    Here's how we form the past intransitive tense:

    ketin, bikeve - to fall (stem = ket)
    ez ketim - I fell em ketin - we fell
    tu keti - you (sing.) fell hun ketin - you (pl.) fell
    ew ket - he/she/it fell ew ketin - they fell


    cun, bice - to go (stem = cu)
    ez cum - I went em cun - we went
    tu cuyi - you (sing.) went hun cun - you (pl.) went
    ew cu - he/she/it went ew cun - they went


    Note: If verb stem ends in vowel, then a "y" is added by some writers as a buffer between stem and
    suffix vowels -- see second person singular, "cuyi". It is normally pronounced, however, as one
    syllable, i.e. as if it were spelled "cuy".

    firrin, bifirre - to fly (past stem = firri)
    ez firrim - I flew em firrin - we flew
    tu firri - you (sing.) flew hun firrin - you (pl.) flew


    (extra "i" assimilated)
    ew firri - he/she/it flew ew firrin - they flew
    ("i" part of stem)


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    5.3 - Past Tense of Transitive Verbs and Ergativity
    We covered how to form the past tense for intransitive verbs (verbs with a subject, and without an
    object). Now we show how to form the past tense for transitive verbs (verbs with a subject and object).
    There is a special rule for this:

    The subject of a transitive verb in the past tenses is always in the oblique case. The object of the
    transitive verb in the past tense is in the direct (nominative) case. The verb will agree with the
    OBJECT in number and person.

    Here is an example. To say I am following you, we might look in the dictionary and see:

    sopandin, bisopine - vt to follow

    Then we create the present tense as follows:

    Ez te disopinim. - I am following you.

    That is, the ending of the verb agrees with the subject (ez) and the object, you, is in direct case (te).
    However, the past tense is different when the verb is transitive.
    We do not say: Ez te sopandim. Instead the correct form is:


    Min tu sopandi.

    In this special case, the normal order is reversed.

    5.4 - Examples of the Transitive Past Tense Verbs
    Note that in the examples below the subjects of the verb are all in the oblique case and the objects in
    the direct case. The verb is conjugated like the simple past tense of intransitive verbs (see 3.3) except
    that, since the object of the sentence is in the direct case, they are in agreement with the object, not the
    subject.

    wi ez ditim - he saw me. "wi" - subject of sentence, but in oblique case because the verb is past
    tense transitive. "Ez", the object of the verb is in direct (nominative) case for the same reason. "Ditim",
    the verb, agrees in number and person with "ez", its object.

    wi tu diti - he saw you

    wi ew dit - he saw it/her/him

    wi em ditin - he saw us

    wi hun ditin - he saw you (pl.)

    wi ew ditin - he saw them

    ke tu diti? - Who saw you? (remember, "ki" (who, whom) in the direct case and "ke" (who,
    whom) in the oblique case, i.e. tu ki dit? - whom did you see?)

    kurr kec dit - the boy saw the girl

    keceke kurr ditin - a girl saw the boys

    kurreki kecek dit - a boy saw a girl

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    kecan kurr ditin - the girl saw the boys

    kurran kec ditin - the boys saw the girls

    ke kurr ditin? - who saw the boys? (ke is ki but in oblique case)

    ke doh kurr ditin? Who saw the boys yesterday?

    min xwe sist - I washed myself

    wi xwe sist - he washed himself

    wan xwe sistin - they washed themselves

    min dit ku tu cuyi souk. - I saw that you went to the shops.

    min got ku ez ji te hez dikim. - I said that I like you (ji te = to you).

    min bihist ku ... - I heard that ...

    min kare xwe bi dawi kir. - I finished my work.

    min ji sinore Turk derbas bu. - I crossed the Turkish border.

    min kefci da wi. - I gave the spoon to him.

    Chapter 6 - The Subjunctive and the Conditional

    6.1 - The Subjunctive Mood
    The subjunctive mood means that a verb represents an action or state of being not as a fact but as
    contingent, doubtful or possible. To create the subjunctive form in Kurdish one simply drops the suffix
    "e" from the imperative and adds the personal endings.

    The prefix "bi-" is common to the imperative and subjunctive forms and is referred to as the
    subjunctive prefix. The best way to distinguish the two is, of course, by context. Also, the imperative,
    being always in the second person, is restricted in the number of different personal endings it displays.

    The only way to distinguish the third person singular subjunctive from the imperative is from the
    context. In compound verbs the "bi-" prefix is not used (like their imperative forms).

    ditin, bibine - to see

    subj. form: bibinim - (would) that I (could) see.

    bibini - (would) that you (could) see.

    etc.

    vexwarin, vexwe - to drink

    subj. form: vexwim - (would) that I (could) drink.

    vexwi - (would) that you (could) drink.

    etc.

    6.2 - Subjunctive Used with Helping Verbs
    Helping verbs express the ability to do something, knowledge of something, wishing or wanting to do
    something, and being advised about or warned against something. In Kurdish, helping verbs are
    followed by the subjunctive form of the verb.

    Note that the helping verbs are divided into two categories: those which are conjugated (xwestin - to

    15



    want, karin - to be able, zanin - to know), and those which are not (gerek - should, dive - ought, lazim e

    - must, and mecbur - definitely must, incumbent that).
    6.3 - Examples of the Subjunctive & Conjugated Helping Verbs
    Ez dikarim bibinim. - I can see.

    Ez dizanim bajom. - I know how to drive.

    Ez dixwazim feri Kurdi bibim. - I want to learn Kurdish.

    Tu dikari bikeni? - Can you laugh?

    Ere ez dikarim bikenim. - Yes I can laugh.

    Tu dixwazi Kurmanji bibeji? - You want to speak Kurdish?

    Ere, ez dixwazim Kurmanji bejim. - Yes, I want to speak Kurdish.

    Tu zani bixwini? - Do you know how to read?

    Ere, ez dizanim bixwinim. - Yes, I know how to read.

    Tu kari wi hildi? - Are you able to lift it? (hildan, hilde is a compound verb and therefore the
    subjunctive prefix "bi-" is missing.)

    Ez nikarim binim bira xwe. - I can't remember.

    6.4 - Examples of the Subjunctive & Unconjugated Helping Verbs
    Gerek tu bixwi. - You should eat.
    Gerek tu nexwi. - You should not eat.
    Gerek ez alikariya te bikim? - Should I help you?
    Dive tu bajoyi. - You ought to drive.
    Lazim e tu bibini. - You must see! (It is necessary that you see.)
    Mecbur tu bixwi. - You must eat!
    Lazim e tu Kurmanji baxivi? - Is it necessary that you speak Kurdish?


    6.5 - Negation of the Subjunctive Mood
    To negate the subjunctive replace the prefix "bi-" with "ne-". Remember, "na-" negates normal present
    tense indicative verbs and "ne-" subjunctive verbs. "ni-" is used for verbs like "kari" (to be able to) and
    "zani" which have an "a" following the first consonant.

    Lazim e tu nebini. - It is necessary that you not see.

    It is also possible to negate the "helping verb".

    Ne mecbur e tu bixwi. - It is not necessary that you eat.

    6.6 - Exceptions and Dialectal Differences
    The verbs "hatin, werre" (to come) and "cun, herre" (to go) are exceptions to the above stated rules.

    "Hatin, werre" has two forms of the subjunctive: the regular and the alternative form. The first form
    (werre) is often used to indicate the imperative mood, and the alternative form for the subjunctive
    mood. Some dialects use only one or the other of these two forms exclusively.

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    hatin, werre - to come

    1st subjunctive: alternative:

    ez werim ez bem
    tu weri tu beyi
    ew were ew be
    em werin em ben
    hun werin hun ben
    ew werin ew ben

    The subjunctive forms of "cun, herre" (to go) that are based on the imperative appear to be remnants of
    a different verb, much like the use of English "went" as a past tense for "go". In some dialects the
    alternative subjunctive is used, which is based on the same root as "cun". In all cases, the imperative
    seems to remain "herre".

    subjunctive of cun, herre - to go alternative:
    ez herrim em herrin bicim bicin
    tu herri hun herrin bici bicin
    ew herre ew herrin bice bice

    Note that the two subjunctive forms of "bun, bibe". These two forms are not dialectal differences but
    actually denote the difference between "to be" and "to become".

    subjunctive of "bun, be" when meaning "to be"
    ez bim em bin
    tu bi (or be) hun bin
    ew be ew bin

    subjunctive of "bun, bibe" when meaning "to become"
    ez bibim em bibin
    tu bibi hun bibin
    ew bibe ew bibin

    Em e mezin bin. - We will be big.
    Em e mezin bibin. - We will become big.


    6.7 - Conditional and Purpose Clauses
    Conditional and purpose clauses are introduced by appropriate conjunctions and exhibit subjunctive
    form.

    Ez dicim xwendegehe dajiboy ez bixwinim. - I go to the university in order to study.
    Ez dixwinim dajiboy bibim mamoste. - I am studying in order to become a teacher.
    Heke ez bibim mamoste... - If I become a teacher...

    Chapter 7 - Future Tense

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    7.1 - Formation of the Future Tense
    To express future tense, one puts the verb in the subjunctive; i.e. take the imperative (2nd dictionary)
    form of the verb, drop the "-e" and add the personal endings. However, to indicate the future and not
    the subjunctive, add the suffix "-e" to the pronoun which is the subject of the verb.

    xwarin, bixwe - to eat
    ez e bixwim - I am going to eat
    te (=tu + ye) bixwi - you are going to eat
    ew e bixwe - he/she/it is going to eat
    em e bixwin - we are going to eat
    hun e bixwin - you (pl.) are going to eat
    ew e bixwin - they are going to eat


    If the subject of the future tense verb is a noun and not a pronoun, the future tense indicator "we" (in
    some dialects "de") follows it. It stands alone, i.e. is not attached to the noun.

    Azad we bixwe. - Azad will eat.
    Mamoste we be. - The professor will come.


    "we" usually comes after the noun, but in some dialects one might find it before its subject: "We Azad
    bixwe" - "Azad will eat".

    Ez e te bikujim - I will kill you (note, "te" is in the oblique case as it is the object of the verb).
    Ez e nen bidim te - I will give the bread to you.
    Kurre te we biji - You son will live.


    7.2 - Formation of the Passive
    A verb is passive when the subject does not act, but is acted upon. In Kurdish the passive construction
    is formed by conjugating the verb "hatin" (to come) appropriately for the context and by following that
    with the infinitive of the verb which is to be passivized. It is, of course, only possible to make transitive
    verbs passive.

    7.3 - Examples of Passives
    ez hatim giredan - I was tied (up)
    tu hati giredan - you were tied (up)
    ew hat giredan - he was tied (up)
    em hatin giredan - we were tied (up)
    hun hatin giredan - you (pl.) were tied (up)
    ew hatin giredan - they were tied (up)
    Mirov te kustin. - The person is being killed.
    Ez tem kustin. - I am being killed.
    Tu teyi kustin. - You were killed.
    Sev ten xwarin. - The apples are being eaten.


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    7.4 - Future Tense Passive Construction
    The passive in the future tense is formed by putting the verb "hatin" in the subjunctive, the main verb in
    the infinitive, and the future marker ("-e" or "we") on the subject.

    Ez e bem giredan. - I will be tied

    Te beyi giredan. - You will be tied.

    Mirov we be giredan. - The person will be tied.

    Mirov we were giredan. - The person will be tied.

    Note that both be and were are alternative forms of the future tense for "to come".

    7.5 - Past Tense Passive Construction
    Although the past tenses of transitive verbs are affected by ergativity (i.e., the fact that the subjects of
    past tense transitive verbs are in the oblique case and the objects in the direct case; see ch. 4), this is not
    the case in the passive construction. The reason for this is that the subject of the passive is also the
    thing acted upon, and consequently it remains in the direct case. Also, the verb being conjugated,
    "hatin", is not transitive although the infinitive that follows is. Thus, to form the past tense passive
    construction, the subject of the sentence is sollowed by the past tense of "hatin" conjugated according
    to the subject. "Hatin" is followed by the infinitive of the main verb of the sentence. An "-e" is
    sometimes added to "hatin" for euphonic reasons.

    Sev hate xwarin. - The apple was eaten.

    Ez hatime kustin. - I was killed. (often the "i" in "hatin" is dropped: "Ez hatme kustin.")

    Note: Due to the euphonic "-e" added to "hatin" in the past tense passive construction it looks like the
    perfect passive tense. In some forms they are indistinguishable.

    Sev hatiye xwarin. - The apple has been eaten.

    Sev hate xwarin. - The apple was eaten.

    Ez hatim(e) ditin. - I was seen.

    Ez hatime ditin. - I have been seen.

    Chapter 8 - Past Perfect, Continuous Past and Present Perfect

    8.1 - Pluperfect (or Past Perfect) Tense
    The pluperfect tense is the "past in the past". In Kurmanji the pluperfect is used much like it is used in
    English, i.e. to designate an event or a state which took place before a specific time in the past (i.e.
    When he called, I had gone.)

    The pluperfect is formed with the special participle and the verb "bun, bibe" (to be, to become). To that
    participle one adds the simple past form of "bun" conjugated to agree with the appropriate referent, i.e.
    the subject if the verb is intransitive, the object if transitive.

    hatin >> hati + bun = (they, we, you (pl.)) had come

    19



    xwarin >> xwari + bun = (they, we, you (pl.)) had eaten

    dan >> da + bun = (they, we, you (pl.)) had given

    cun >> cu + bum = I had gone

    kenin >> keni + buyi = you (sing.) had laughed

    ketin >> keti + bu = he/she/it had fallen, etc.

    Intransitive verbs (verb agrees with subject):

    Ew hati bu. - He had come.
    Ez keti bum. - I had fallen.
    Tu keti buyi. - You had fallen, etc.


    Transitive verbs (verb agrees with object):

    min (ew) diti bu. - I had seen it.

    te (ew) diti bu. - You had seen it.

    wi (ew) diti bu. - He had seen it. etc.

    Remember, the reason "bu" does not change in these three examples is because the object "ew" remains
    the same. When the object of the transitive verb in the past tense changes, "bun" will change
    accordingly.

    Wi ez diti bum. - He had seen me.
    Min hun diti bun. - I had seen you.
    Wan ez diti bum. - They had seen me.
    Min tu diti buyi. - I had seen you.
    Min nezanibu ku ... - I did not know that ... (this is the normal way to say you didn't know)


    8.2 - Progressive Past Tense
    The progressive past tense indicates an action in the past that was continuous (I was going .etc). It is
    formed by simply adding the indicative prefix "di-" before the simple past tense.

    ez di-ket-im - I was falling

    tu di-ket-i - you were falling

    ew di-cu - he was going

    em di-firri-n - we were flying, etc.

    8.3 - Negation of Past Tense
    To negate the past tense add the prefix "ne-". i.e. just prefix "ne-" to the simple past tense of the verb.
    Note that the vowel of this negative prefix differs from that in 3.4.

    ez ne-cu-m - I didn't go.

    tu ne-cuyi - you didn't go.

    wi ez neditim - he didn't see me.

    20



    8.4 - Negation of Past Progressive Tense
    Unlike the present tense, where the negative prefix replaces the indicative prefix "di-", the two co-occur
    in negating the past progressive:

    ez ne-di-cum - I wasn't going.
    em ne-di-firrin - we weren't flying.

    8.5 - The Present Perfect Tense
    The present perfect tense denotes an action which happened in the past, the results of which are still felt
    at the present. We form this from the past tense but by adding an -e on the end.

    ketin, bikeve - to fall
    ez ketime - I have fallen em ketine - we have fallen
    tu ketiye - you have fallen hun ketine - you (pl.) have fallen
    ew ketiye - he/she/it has fallen ew ketine - they have fallen

    cun - to go
    ez cume - I have come em cune - we have gone
    tu cuye - you have gone hun cune - you (pl.) have gone
    ew cuye - he/she/it has gone ew cune - they have gone

    This also works in the same way for transitive verbs too.

    Min ew ditiye - I have seen him/her/it.
    We ew ditiye - she has seen him/her/it.
    Wan ew ditiye - they have seen him/her/it.
    Wi ez ditime - He has seen me.
    Wi ew ditine - He has seen them.
    Te sev fitostiye? - Have you sold the apple?
    Me sev kirrine - We have bought the apples.


    Chapter 9 - Participles, Verbal & Abstract Nouns, Adjectives

    9.1 - Formation of Participles
    Participles make adjectives out of verbs. To make a participle you take the past stem and add "i".
    Participles based on transitive verbs generally have passive meaning while those based on intransitive
    verbs have active meaning.

    Infinitive Past stem Participle
    ketin ket keti (fallen)
    runistin runist runisti (sitting, having sat)
    sistin sist sisti (washed, as in "the washed clothes")

    If the past stem of a particular verb ends in a long vowel, then place a "y" between the verb stem and


    21



    the participle ending as a buffer.

    man ma mayi (remaining, having remained)
    cun cu cuyi (gone)


    If the stem ends in an "i", then there is no need to add another "i".

    girin giri giri (crying)

    When the participle modifies a noun the izafe will be added to the noun as with any modified noun and
    adjective.

    kurre keti - the fallen boy
    keca runisti - the sitting girl
    cilen sisti - the washed clothes


    When the noun modified is missing, the izafe can still be present, referring back to the missing noun.
    (This is true of any adjective, not just of participles.)

    ye keti - the fallen (one)
    ye runisti - the sitting (one)
    yen sisti - the washed (one)


    9.2 - Infinitives as Nouns
    In Kurmanji all infinitive forms of the verb can be used as nouns. These nouns are all feminine; they
    take the feminine izafe and oblique case ending.

    gotin, beje - to say >> gotin - a saying >> gotina xwes - a proverb (pleasant word)
    Xwendina te bas e. - Your reading is good.
    Eme dest bi xwendine bibin. - We will begin (the) reading.


    9.3 - Abstract Nouns
    Abstract nouns are formed by adding the suffix "-i" to adjectives. When the adjective already ends in a
    vowel, add "-ti". These nouns are likewise always feminine.

    azad - free >> azadi - freedom
    hejar - poor >> hejari - poverty
    nexwes - sick >> nexwesi - sickness
    birci - hungry >> birciti - hunger
    spehi - beautiful >> spehiti - beauty


    Sometimes the suffix "-i" appears as "-ayi", "-ani", or "-ati". It may be significant that many of the
    adjectives which take the longer endings are monosyllabic.

    dur - far >> durayi - distance

    22



    direj - long >> direjayi - length
    germ - warm >> germayi - warmth
    mer - man >> merani - manliness
    xort - youth >> xortani - youthfullness
    pirr - many >> pirrani - majority, most
    mirov - person >> mirovati - humanity, humanness
    kiriv - godparent >> kirivati - godparenthood
    sexsi - personal >> sexsiyet - personality


    9.4 - Making Adjectives out of Nouns
    Adjectives made from nouns are formed by adding "-i" to the noun.

    hesin - iron >> hesini - ironlike, made of iron.
    ziv - silver >> zivi - silvery, made of silver.
    zer - gold >> zeri - golden.


    9.5 - Making Nouns out of Nouns
    Sometimes one noun is derived from another by the addition of the suffix "-i", most often indicating
    where someone comes from.

    bajar - city >> bajari - urbanite
    gund - village >> gundi - villager
    Iran - Iran >> Irani - Iranian


    Chapter 10 - Comparatives, Causitives

    10.1 - The Comparative & the Superlative
    The comparative is formed by adding the suffix "-tir" to the appropriate adjective.

    bas (good) >> bastir (better)
    mezin (large, great) >> mezintir (larger, greater)


    To say the superlative, use the word "heri".

    heri bas - the best
    heri picuk - the smallest


    Here are some examples of comparatives:

    Kurdistan ji Almanya xwestir e. - Kurdistan is nicer than Germany.
    Ew ji min xurttir e. - He is stronger than I.
    Selim ji hemu wan ciwantir e. - Selim is the youngest of them all.
    Bihar ji havin germtir e. - Is spring hotter than summer?
    Ramanen min wek ramanen te ne. - My thinking is similar to your thinking.


    23



    Tu wek hev we ye. - You are the same as her.

    10.2 - Causatives
    Causatives are a category of transitive verbs. They are verbs of action by which an effect is produced.
    Many intransitive verbs can be made into causative transitive verbs (ie., My hand burns >> Something
    burns my hand).

    To form the causative in Kurmanji you take the present stem of the intransitive verb and add the suffix
    "andin". The ending "ine" makes the imperative too. We use the past tense to form the new past and
    imperative tenses.

    Note: The intransitive verb and its causative form will be two different listings in the dictionary.

    sewitin, bisewite - something burns (e.g it is burning)

    sewitin >> sewit + andin = sewitandin, bisewitine - to burn something

    tirsin, bitirse - to be afraid >> tirsandin, bitirsine - to scare, to frighten

    Wi ez tirsandim - He scared me.

    10.3 - Causative of "bun, bibe" (to be, to become): kirin, bike
    The causative of a compound with "bun, bibe (to be)" is the corresponding compound with "kirin, bike"
    (to make, to do, to cause to become).

    Ez gej bum. - I became confused/dizzy.

    Wi ez gej kirim. - He made me dizzy / He confused me.

    10.4 - "Histin, bihele" (to let, to allow, to cause) and the Causative
    When the verb "histin, bihele" is used with a subordinate, the subordinate clause begins with "ku" (that,
    which, who). The verb in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive. "Ku" (that, which, who)
    can be dropped without changing the meaning of the sentence. It is then understood from the context.
    The verb of the subordinate clause remains in the subjunctive even if the "ku" is dropped.

    Ez nahelim ku ew raze. - I don't allow him to sleep (I don't allow that he sleep).

    Min hist ku ew werre ba we. - I allowed (that) him to come to you.

    Ba dihele ku agir zu vede. - Wind causes (that) the fire to light quickly.

    Ba dihele agir zu vede. - Wind causes the fire to light quickly.

    10.5 - "Dan, bide" (to give) and the Causative
    Normally "dan, bide" means "to give". However, it can also mean "to cause" when an infinitive is used
    after it. In a negative sentence "dan, bide" can mean "to not allow, to not let, to cause not to". The sense
    of the accompanying infinitive is normally passive.

    Ez we didim xwendin. - I cause it (fem.) to be read.
    Ez wi didim naskirin. - I cause him to be known (ie. I introduce him).


    24



    Chapter 11 - Prepositions, Postpositions, Conjunctions and Quantifiers

    11.1 - Prepositions and Postpositions
    The main prepositions and postpositions you will use are:

    bi ... - by means of something, with the use of a thing
    li ... - in a physical place or location
    di ... de - in with dates, ideas, things. When used with a place it places bigger emphasis.
    ji - from, out of
    bi ... re - together with, along with
    bi ... ve - connected or together with
    ji ... ve - since, from
    ji ... re - to, towards (directed at)

    11.2 - Prepositions and Different Postposition Combinations
    ber - in front of
    Hek deyne ber goste. - Put the egg in front of the meat.

    be - without
    Be te em nikarin dest bi nimej bikin. - We cannot begin our prayers without you.
    Ew be aqil e. - He is stupid (without intelligence).

    bi - with, by means of
    Ez bi penusa min dinivisin. - I am writing with my pen.
    Ew bi guman bu. - He was doubtful (with doubt).

    bi ... re - with, along with
    Ew bi min re dimine. - He stays with me.
    Gerek em bi hev re bicin. - We should go together.
    Min bi wi re got ... - I was said to him that ...

    bi ... ve - together with, on (implies a connection with the object)
    Mirov bi jine ve dikene. - The man is laughing together with the woman.
    Giredayi bi me ve heye. - There's a connection betwen us.

    di ... de - in, inside (for dates, abstract concepts, not only locations)
    "Xwede di destpeke de erd u ezman avakirin" (Kiteba Musa ya Pesi 1:1). - "In the beginning

    God created earth and heaven" (Gen. 1:1).
    Di sala 1936 de soresa Katalan hebu. - In 1939 there was the Catalan revolution.
    Ez di odeyen wan de li pirtuka min digerim. - I am searching in their rooms for my book.
    Min di kare xwe de gelek tist peyde kirin. - I discovered many things in my work.

    di bin ... de - under, underneath
    Kiteb di bin maseye de ye. - The book is under the table.

    25



    Kesti di bin pire de dice. - The ship is going under the bridge.

    di nav ... de - in the middle, among
    Mala min di nav daristane de ye. - My house is in the middle of the forest.
    Di nav Kurdan de yek zu feri zimane Kurdi dibe. - Among the Kurds one learns Kurdish

    quickly.

    di navbera .. de - in between, amongst
    Ew di navbera xwe de pevcun dikir. - They were arguing amongst themselves.

    heya, heta - until, as far as
    Ez heya Stambole dicim. - I'm going as far as Istanbul.
    Heya bi Stambole 8 seet in. - It's 8 hours until Istanbul.
    Heta ku te weri, em e necin. - Until you come, we will not go.

    ji - from, out of
    Ew ji xwendegehe te. - He's coming from school.
    Ew jin pener ji sir cedike. - This woman is making cheese from milk.
    Ew ji tirsan nace we dere. - Out of fear(s) he doesn't go there.

    ji ... ve - from; as of, since
    Ew ji sibehi ve digri. - He has been crying since morning [lit. is crying].
    Ew ji ve gunde ve te. - He comes from that village.

    ji ... re - to, for
    Ez ji wi re diaxevim. - I am talking to him.

    li - in (only for a location or a physical place)

    Min li Amerika jiyan dikir. - I was living in America.

    di ... de can also be used but it puts a stronger emphasis on the location as being important.

    In the verbs gerin, bigere and meze kirin, li is used for introducing the object.

    Ez li vi digerim. - I'm searching for him/it.
    Ez li vi geriyam. - I searched for him/it.
    Ez bi gisti li vi meze dikim. - I am generally watching it.
    Em e li benda te biksekinin vir. - We will wait for you here. (you can also use biminin too)


    li gori - according to
    Li gori plana wi, em e hedi bimese. - According to his plan, we will slowly proceed.

    li ser - on, above, about
    Tu ci dibeji li ser van tistan? - What do you have to say about these things?
    Tu cawa difikiri li ser vi? - What do you think about this?

    26


    li diji - against Em li diji DAIS derdikevin. - We are against ISIS.

    Li aliye din, ... - On the other hand, ...

    ser - on, to

    kiteban deyne ser mase - Put the books on the table

    Eme bicin ser Stambole. - We are going to Istanbul.

    ji bo - for
    Hemu hewla min ji bo wi ye. - All my effort is for him.

    11.3 - Conjunctions
    Conjunctions are never conjugated and have no case.

    tene, bes - only, except

    Em hemu cun male, tene Memo li xwendegehe ma bu. - We all went home, only Memo
    remained at school.

    ji ber ku - because, on account of

    Jiber ku ez dixwazim bi Kurdi bihalimim, ez tim bi Kurdi dixwinim. - Because I want to learn
    Kurdish I always read Kurdish.

    Ez hatim Rojava ji ber ku min tekosina Kurd di televizyon de didit. - I came to Rojava because I
    was seeing the Kurdish struggle on television.

    ji ber ve - because of this
    Ji ber ve ez derketim. - Because of this, I left.

    ji - also, too Ez ji basim. - I am also fine. Tu ji cawa yi? - And how are you?

    ku - that, which

    Heviya min ew e, ku tu vegerri. - My hope it is, that you come.

    Min dit ku gotinen wi rast e. - I saw that his words were the truth (were right).

    Ez zanim ku ewe sibe be. - I know that he will come tomorrow (be is alternative form of were).

    le -but

    Em tamam insan in le em bi zimane hev fehm nakin. - We are all people but we don't
    understand the same language.

    u - and ez u tu - I and you cep u rast - left and right

    wilo - in that way

    ya(n), an (dialectal variants) - or
    subhe yan dusbe eze bem. - I will come tomorrow or the day after.

    yani - for example, in other words, meaning, that is

    27



    Ev sahat xerab bu, yani, skesti bu. - This watch went bad, that is, it was broken.

    11.4 - Temporal Conjunctions
    beri ku - before

    Beri ku tu nehati bu Elmanya te Kurdi nezani bu. - Before you had (not) come to Germany you
    didn't know Kurdish. (Before coming to Germany you didn't know Kurdish.)

    dema ku - when

    Dema ku ez tem mal, diya min cilan diso. - When I come home my mother washes the clothes.

    Dema ku ez tem mal ez tim kiteban dixwinim. - When I come home I always read books.

    heke, eger - if (conditional), when (temporal).

    Heke pirsa wan hebe, ber niha bejin. - If they have a question, let them speak now.

    Heke tu hati eme bi hev re cay vexwin. - When you come we will drink tea together

    Eger ew bastir nebe, dive em wi bibin textor. - If he doesn't become better, we must take him to
    the doctor.

    hingi - then

    Pesi wi xaniye xwe firot, hingi wi dixwest vi disa bikirre. - First he sold his house then he
    wanted to buy it back.

    pisti ku - after (pistre, afterwards)

    Pisti ku min dit ew hevale qenc bu kefa min geleki je hat. - After I saw that he was a good
    friend, I was very pleased with him (lit. my pleasure much came from him).

    Pisti du salan ew miri. - After two years he died.

    11.5 - Quantifiers
    Quantifiers are adverbs that show the amount of something. If the long list of quantifiers below looks
    threatening, remember that not every dialect uses all of them! Listen for and learn the ones you hear
    spoken by the people around you. Eventually learn to recognize the other ones as well.

    cend - some (see also 12:2)

    Ez cend kiteban dixwazim. - I want some books (kiteban is in the plural oblique).

    Cend xwendekar hatin. - Some students came (xwendekar is plural but in direct case).

    din, di - other, else

    Ez cend bajaren din nasdikim. - I know some other cities.

    Tisteki din ji heye. - There is also something else.

    gelek, pirr, zehf - many (can be used adjectivally and pronominally)

    Gelek zarok dicin ve xwendegehe. - Many children go to that school.

    Gelek dicin ve xwendegehe. - Many go to that school.

    Ez pirr xwendekaran nasdikim. - I know many students.

    Zehf Kurd li Elmanya hene. - There are many Kurds in Germany.

    28



    hemu - all, everything, everyone.
    Ez hemu ji wan dixwazim. - I want all of them.

    her - every, each
    Min ev her car nedi. - I didn't see him (this one) every time.

    her kes - everybody, everyone
    Her kes kare vi kari bike? - Can everybody do this job?

    her tist - everything

    hin, hinek - some, a few, a number, many
    Hin heval dicin kardikan. - Some friends are going and working.
    Ez hinan ji wan nasnakim. - I don't know some of them.

    hic - none... at all, no... at all, none, nothing (always negative)
    Hic nuce ji te re ji wan nehatine? - Has any news for you arrived at all from them?

    felankes - someone

    kesek - anybody, nobody (use negative for nobody)

    kem, hindik - a little
    Ez Kurmanji kem zanim. - I know a little Kurmanji.

    her tim - always
    Xwede her tim gotina xwe dibe seri. - God always makes his word succeed.

    tistek - a thing, something, or with negative verbs: nothing, not anything.
    Tistek ji te re ji wan hatiye. - Something has come for you from them.
    Ez tisteki ji we nabinim. - I am not seeing anything of you.
    Min tistek nedit. - I didn't see anything.

    11.6 - Question Words
    cawa - how
    Tu cawa yi? - How are you?

    cend - how many (used with "count" nouns. See also 12.1)
    Cend hene? - How many are there?
    Cend qelem hene? - How many pens are there?
    Tu cend kiteban dixwazi? - How many books do you want?

    ci - what
    Ew ci kiteban dixwinim? - What kind of books are they reading?
    Wi ci got? - What did he say?

    29


    cima - why
    Tu cima hati? - Why did you come?

    ciqas - how much
    Ciqasi dur e? - How far is it?

    kengi - when
    Tu kengi hati? - When did you come?

    ki - who (in oblique case, "ke")
    Ev ki bu? - Who was that?
    Tu ke dixwazi? - Who do you want?

    kijan - which
    Kijan bastir e? - Which one is better?

    kudere - where (lit. which place)
    Ew dice kudere? - Where is he going?


  • Лампочка, а ничего что там потом вообще всё пропадает, и череп и
    10
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TP7C7HkEk38
  • Виталий Степанович
    11
    07:45:00
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    07:44:46
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    07:44:41
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    07:44:32
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    07:44:29
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    07:44:23
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    07:44:20
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    07:44:17
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    07:44:14
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    07:42:28
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    07:42:24
    Юлиана Волик, ты шкурная и абсолютно анусная выпендрюга!
    07:42:15
    Юлиана Волик, ты припизженный, раздроченный и блядогнойнопиздый очкист!
  • Виталий Степанович
    12
    07:45:00
    Сучеблудная, небывало жидявая и несусветно херополнолюбая педофилка Элла Волик — лесбиянка опизденевшая!
    07:44:55
    Невообразимо инфантильная, половозрелая и говнохерая еблиха Юлиана Волик — низкоеблохуярая, бесправная хуйнюшка!
    07:44:46
    Элла Волик — ссущая, похабная и пиздато хероманданогая мавританка!
    07:44:43
    Юлиана Волик, ты неприлично лохосучая балаболка!
    07:44:41
    Элла Волик, ты похитительница скунсов!
    07:44:38
    Достаточно пиздочленная, капельку многоватая пустышка Юлиана Волик — неразумная, дурогрызая притягательница дроздов!
    07:44:35
    Элла Волик — прокажённая, изысканная козявка!
    07:44:32
    Поебня уникальная Юлиана Волик — канарейка!
    07:44:29
    Элла Волик — чуть-чуть засохшая, цельная и достаточно страхожирноблудая сикулька!
    07:44:26
    В самом деле девственная, совокуплённая дьячка Юлиана Волик — пиздожопая и не в меру опухшая поедательница паразитов!
    07:44:23
    Элла Волик, ты впрямь залупочленная, ублюдская залупня!
    07:44:20
    Юлиана Волик — дерьмомелкоблядка!
    07:44:17
    Элла Волик — блядопидобляхая лихозвонка!
    07:44:14
    Малость тормозная шмакодявка Юлиана Волик — пиздосраная мучительница удавов!
    07:44:09
    Абсолютно колхозная и не в меру чумовая коротышка Элла Волик — неоспоримо хуйложирнопиздая, вражья и невообразимо херогнойная заглотка!
    07:44:03
    Элла Волик, ты повелитель бегемотов!
    07:42:28
    Юлиана Волик, ты блюющая, волчая гловариха идиоток!
    07:42:25
    Юлиана Волик — неслыханно хуйлозалуподрочая, полновафленогая глупышка!
    07:42:24
    Юлиана Волик, ты шкурная и абсолютно анусная выпендрюга!
    07:42:15
    Юлиана Волик, ты припизженный, раздроченный и блядогнойнопиздый очкист!
  • Виталий Степанович
    13
    07:45:00
    Сучеблудная, небывало жидявая и несусветно херополнолюбая педофилка Элла Волик — лесбиянка опизденевшая!
    07:44:55
    Невообразимо инфантильная, половозрелая и говнохерая еблиха Юлиана Волик — низкоеблохуярая, бесправная хуйнюшка!
    07:44:46
    Элла Волик — ссущая, похабная и пиздато хероманданогая мавританка!
    07:44:43
    Юлиана Волик, ты неприлично лохосучая балаболка!
    07:44:41
    Элла Волик, ты похитительница скунсов!
    07:44:38
    Достаточно пиздочленная, капельку многоватая пустышка Юлиана Волик — неразумная, дурогрызая притягательница дроздов!
    07:44:35
    Элла Волик — прокажённая, изысканная козявка!
    07:44:32
    Поебня уникальная Юлиана Волик — канарейка!
    07:44:29
    Элла Волик — чуть-чуть засохшая, цельная и достаточно страхожирноблудая сикулька!
    07:44:26
    В самом деле девственная, совокуплённая дьячка Юлиана Волик — пиздожопая и не в меру опухшая поедательница паразитов!
    07:44:23
    Элла Волик, ты впрямь залупочленная, ублюдская залупня!
    07:44:20
    Юлиана Волик — дерьмомелкоблядка!
    07:44:17
    Элла Волик — блядопидобляхая лихозвонка!
    07:44:14
    Малость тормозная шмакодявка Юлиана Волик — пиздосраная мучительница удавов!
    07:44:09
    Абсолютно колхозная и не в меру чумовая коротышка Элла Волик — неоспоримо хуйложирнопиздая, вражья и невообразимо херогнойная заглотка!
    07:44:03
    Элла Волик, ты повелитель бегемотов!
    07:42:28
    Юлиана Волик, ты блюющая, волчая гловариха идиоток!
    07:42:25
    Юлиана Волик — неслыханно хуйлозалуподрочая, полновафленогая глупышка!
    07:42:24
    Юлиана Волик, ты шкурная и абсолютно анусная выпендрюга!
    07:42:15
    Юлиана Волик, ты припизженный, раздроченный и блядогнойнопиздый очкист!
  • Виталий Степанович
    14
    07:45:00
    Сучеблудная, небывало жидявая и несусветно херополнолюбая педофилка Элла Волик — лесбиянка опизденевшая!
    07:44:55
    Невообразимо инфантильная, половозрелая и говнохерая еблиха Юлиана Волик — низкоеблохуярая, бесправная хуйнюшка!
    07:44:46
    Элла Волик — ссущая, похабная и пиздато хероманданогая мавританка!
    07:44:43
    Юлиана Волик, ты неприлично лохосучая балаболка!
    07:44:41
    Элла Волик, ты похитительница скунсов!
    07:44:38
    Достаточно пиздочленная, капельку многоватая пустышка Юлиана Волик — неразумная, дурогрызая притягательница дроздов!
    07:44:35
    Элла Волик — прокажённая, изысканная козявка!
    07:44:32
    Поебня уникальная Юлиана Волик — канарейка!
    07:44:29
    Элла Волик — чуть-чуть засохшая, цельная и достаточно страхожирноблудая сикулька!
    07:44:26
    В самом деле девственная, совокуплённая дьячка Юлиана Волик — пиздожопая и не в меру опухшая поедательница паразитов!
    07:44:23
    Элла Волик, ты впрямь залупочленная, ублюдская залупня!
    07:44:20
    Юлиана Волик — дерьмомелкоблядка!
    07:44:17
    Элла Волик — блядопидобляхая лихозвонка!
    07:44:14
    Малость тормозная шмакодявка Юлиана Волик — пиздосраная мучительница удавов!
    07:44:09
    Абсолютно колхозная и не в меру чумовая коротышка Элла Волик — неоспоримо хуйложирнопиздая, вражья и невообразимо херогнойная заглотка!
    07:44:03
    Элла Волик, ты повелитель бегемотов!
    07:42:28
    Юлиана Волик, ты блюющая, волчая гловариха идиоток!
    07:42:25
    Юлиана Волик — неслыханно хуйлозалуподрочая, полновафленогая глупышка!
    07:42:24
    Юлиана Волик, ты шкурная и абсолютно анусная выпендрюга!
    07:42:15
    Юлиана Волик, ты припизженный, раздроченный и блядогнойнопиздый очкист!
  • Виталий Степанович
    15
    07:45:00
    Сучеблудная, небывало жидявая и несусветно херополнолюбая педофилка Элла Волик — лесбиянка опизденевшая!
    07:44:55
    Невообразимо инфантильная, половозрелая и говнохерая еблиха Юлиана Волик — низкоеблохуярая, бесправная хуйнюшка!
    07:44:46
    Элла Волик — ссущая, похабная и пиздато хероманданогая мавританка!
    07:44:43
    Юлиана Волик, ты неприлично лохосучая балаболка!
    07:44:41
    Элла Волик, ты похитительница скунсов!
    07:44:38
    Достаточно пиздочленная, капельку многоватая пустышка Юлиана Волик — неразумная, дурогрызая притягательница дроздов!
    07:44:35
    Элла Волик — прокажённая, изысканная козявка!
    07:44:32
    Поебня уникальная Юлиана Волик — канарейка!
    07:44:29
    Элла Волик — чуть-чуть засохшая, цельная и достаточно страхожирноблудая сикулька!
    07:44:26
    В самом деле девственная, совокуплённая дьячка Юлиана Волик — пиздожопая и не в меру опухшая поедательница паразитов!
    07:44:23
    Элла Волик, ты впрямь залупочленная, ублюдская залупня!
    07:44:20
    Юлиана Волик — дерьмомелкоблядка!
    07:44:17
    Элла Волик — блядопидобляхая лихозвонка!
    07:44:14
    Малость тормозная шмакодявка Юлиана Волик — пиздосраная мучительница удавов!
    07:44:09
    Абсолютно колхозная и не в меру чумовая коротышка Элла Волик — неоспоримо хуйложирнопиздая, вражья и невообразимо херогнойная заглотка!
    07:44:03
    Элла Волик, ты повелитель бегемотов!
    07:42:28
    Юлиана Волик, ты блюющая, волчая гловариха идиоток!
    07:42:25
    Юлиана Волик — неслыханно хуйлозалуподрочая, полновафленогая глупышка!
    07:42:24
    Юлиана Волик, ты шкурная и абсолютно анусная выпендрюга!
    07:42:15
    Юлиана Волик, ты припизженный, раздроченный и блядогнойнопиздый очкист!